Speech and Languge Disorders

    Apraxia/Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a motor speech disorder. Children with CAS have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words. This is not because of muscle weakness or paralysis. The brain has problems planning to move the body parts (e.g., lips, jaw, tongue) needed for speech. The child knows what he or she wants to say, but his/her brain has difficulty coordinating the muscle movements necessary to say those words.
    Click this link to read about Childhood apraxia.

      Girl with Apraxia learning to speak

      "They say talk is cheap. Not for 7-year-old MacKenzie Winn who works hard for every word. She practiced for 2 1/2 years just to learn to say her name. Bright and loving, MacKenzie never babbled like most babies do. Her parents, who live in Magna, noticed something was wrong at 14 months, and speech therapists diagnosed her at age 2. She has childhood apraxia of speech, or CAS. It's the most severe neurological speech disorder there is, doctors say.
      Click this link to listen to the podcast.

      Interview with Nancy Kaufman on Apraxia

      In this episode of the Speech and Language Kids podcast, Carrie Clark interviews speech-language pathologist Nancy Kaufman about speech therapy for Childhood Apraxia of Speech.
      Click this link to listen to the podcast.

      What is Apraxia and Why you should Care

      A helpful blog post explaining Apraxia.
      Click this link to read the post.

      Winners of the 2014 National Apraxia Awareness Day Video Contest

      The Three winning videos for National Apraxia Awareness Day (May 14th, 2014)
      2014 Apraxia Awareness Day Video Contest Winner - Emily Purdy

      2014 Apraxia Awareness Day Video Contest Winner - Jennifer Helm

      2014 Apraxia Awareness Day Video Contest Winner - The Miesners

      A helpful and heartfelt video on Childhood Apraxia of Speech

      "Danny Keefe is a 6-year-old optimist with a speech disorder. And he doesn't care what other people think. In fact, this spunky kindergartner wears a suit, tie, and fedora to school every day. He's also the water coach for the Bridgewater Badgers, a pee wee football team comprised of a band of boys who have rallied around Danny in the hopes to make his life better.

      Awareness Needed for childhood Apraxia

      Apraxia is a speech disorder that seriously interferes with an individual's ability to develop clear speech. Apraxia makes is difficult or at times almost impossible for an individual to plan the movements of the lips, facial muscles, tongue, and jaw to produce speech.
      Click this link to read Childhood apraxia.

    Auditory Processing Disorder

    Auditory Processing Disorder, alternatively known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) is a disorder impacting an individuals' ability to process auditory information. When someone hears speech, the sound is transformed through the ear to neural impulses that travel through the brain to the speech and language processing centers of the brain. Individuals can have difficulty with each or all of the three steps of this process. If a problem exists within the ear, the individual will present with a hearing impairment or in some cases with deafness. If a problem exists in the speech or language processing centers of the brain, the individual will present with a speech and language impairment. Some individuals present with difficulties that occur as the auditory signal is sent from the ear to the language centers of the brain. This would present as an Auditory Processing Disorder. The analogy, I use is that a mother and father are talking to each other on cell phones. They are speaking clearly and have no problem with hearing, but there is static on the cell phone. This static is constantly changing (as if you were on a cell phone in a car) so that the message is at times clear and at other time is distorted or lost. If an individual presents with these difficulties, there are a number of things that can be done to try to train the brain to process in the information more clearly, to modify the environment, and/or to provide tools to amplify the important sound signals over distracting sounds in the environment.
    An excellent resource on Auditory Processing Disorders is the book "Like Sound Through Water." by Karen Foli. The compelling book provides one mother's story of the process of trying to sort out what is wrong with her son, and of pursuing treatment for him.

    Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

      Information on Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

      Children with mixed receptive-expressive language disorder is when an individual displays problems with speaking and understanding others.
      Click this link to read more about the disorder.


      Megan Washington: The Thing Is, I Stutter: TEDxSydney 2014

      Megan Washington is sort of like Katy Perry in Australia. She also has a stutter.

      Special Education Law and Children who Stutter

      A helpful pamphlet on special education law as it applies to students who stutter
      Click this link to download a pdf of the pamphlet.

      Stuttering Notes to the Teacher on Students with Stuttering

      Helpful information for teachers, teaching students with stuttering or oral fluency issues. Back-to-school: Here's a great resource to share with your teacher today!
      Click this link to download a pdf of the pamphlet.

      APA from Stuttering to Fluency

      The role of counseling in helping stutters is explored in this article from the American Psychological Association.
      Click this link to read the article.

      Stuttering Information explained in a short animation film

      Short Animation Film about stuttering: what is stuttering, how does it start, what can you do about it, how do you react to it....

      Myths about stuttering brochure

      A helpful brochure highlighting 5 myths about stuttering.
      Click this link to download the pdf of the brochure.

Speech and Language Disorder Resources

ASHA: Answers to Your DSM-5 Questions

Guidance on the changes from DSM-IV to DSM-V, and answers to questions for Speech and Language Therapists working in the field.
Click this link to read the article
Click this link to download a pdf on ASHA's position on the changes in DSM-V.

NICHCY Speech and Language Disorders Fact Sheet

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) Speech and Language Disorders Fact Sheet.
Click this link to read go to the NICHCY page.
Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet.

Latest Speech and Language Research

Scientists Have Found That Lost Languages Leave A Lasting Mark On The Brain

New study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences indicates that babies adopted across international borders may not remember the language they heard in their first days, but the words leave a lasting mark on their minds.
Click this link to read about the article.

Dramatic increase in the number of children presenting with Speech and Language and Hearing Problems

A recently published study in the journal Pediatrics reported a 63 percent increase in disability associated with speech problems from 2001-02 to 2010-11 among U.S. children, plus a 15 percent increase in disability associated with hearing problems.
Click this link to read the abstract.

Poor Early Language Skills linked to later behavior and attention problems

Young children use language--specifically self-directed talk--as a tool to control and guide their behavior, especially in difficult situations. New findings from NICHD-supported researchers at Indiana University suggest that poor language skills limit young children's ability to control behavior. These limitations could lead to behavior problems, including disorders of inattention and hyperactivity.
Click this link to read about the study
Click this link to read the abstract.

© Copyright, all rights reserved Daniel J. DeMarle, Ph.D. 2014